Lipstick

 

Lipstick is a cosmetic product containing pigments, oils, waxes, and emollients that apply color, texture, and protection to the lips. Many varieties of lipstick exist. As with most other types of makeup, lipstick is typically, but not exclusively, worn by women. The use of lipstick dates back to ancient times.

Ancient Mesopotamian women were possibly the first women to invent and wear lipstick. They crushed gemstones and used them to decorate their lips. Women in the ancient Indus Valley Civilization applied lipstick to their lips for face decoration. Ancient Egyptians extracted red dye from fucus-algin, 0.01% iodine, and some bromine mannite, which resulted in serious illness. Lipsticks with shimmering effects were initially made using a pearlescent substance found in fish scales.

During the Islamic Golden Age the notable Arab Andalusian cosmetologist Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi (Abulcasis) invented solid lipsticks, which were perfumed sticks rolled and pressed in special molds, and he described them in his Al-Tasrif. In Medieval Europe, lipstick was banned by the church and was thought to be used as an 'incarnation of Satan', cosmetics being 'reserved' for prostitutes.

Lip colouring started to gain some popularity in 16th century England. During the time of Queen Elizabeth I bright red lips and a stark white face became fashionable.At that time, lipstick was made from a blend of beeswax and red stains from plants. Only upper class women and male actors wore makeup.

By the end of the 19th century, Guerlain, a French cosmetic company, began to manufacture lipstick. The first commercial lipstick had been invented in 1884, by perfumers in Paris, France. It was covered in silk paper and made from deer tallow, castor oil, and beeswax. Before then, lipstick had been created at home. 

In the early 1930s, Elizabeth Arden began to introduce different lipstick colors beyond the red dark, the most popular till then. She inspired other companies to create a variety of lipstick shades.

In 1950 chemist Hazel Bishop formed a company, Hazel Bishop Inc., to promote her invention of long-lasting, non-smearing 'kissproof' lipstick ("stays on you... not on him"), which quickly gained acceptance.

In the 1970s, a number of cosmetic companies introduced lipsticks in more unusual colors such as iridescent light blue (Kanebo), frosted lime green (Conga Lime by Revlon), and silver sparkled navy blue (Metallic Grandma by Biba). Brand cosmetics continues nowdays to release limited edition and highly collectible lipsticks in a wide range of colors and finishes, including unusual hues of violets, blues, and greens

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